Recently revised on September 15th, 2019

  • Journal of Minimally Invasive Surgery (JMIS) is the official journal of the Korean Society of Endoscopic & Laparoscopic Surgeons, published quarterly (15th day of March, June, September and December). All manuscripts submitted to JMIS must be original; i.e. not published elsewhere (except in abstract form) and not under consideration for publication elsewhere. The journal publishes original paper, case report, editorial, letter to the editor, technical notes, invited review articles, and video/multimedia articles in the field of minimally invasive surgery.
    Manuscripts for submission to JMIS should be written in English according to the following instructions for authors. If the details are not described below, JMIS follows the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly work in Medical Journals ( from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).


    JMIS adheres to the guidelines and best practices published by professional organizations, including ICMJE Recommendations and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing (joint statement by the Committee on Publication Ethics, COPE; the Directory of Open Access Journals, DOAJ; the World Association of Medical Editors, WAME; and Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association, OASPA; Furthermore, all processes of handling research and publication misconduct (or when faced with cases of suspected misconduct) shall follow the applicable COPE flowchart ( Any attempt to duplicate publication or any plagiarism will lead to automatic rejection, may prejudice the acceptance of future submissions, and may be highlighted within the pages of the journal.

    Statement of Human and Animal Rights

    Clinical research should be conducted in accordance with the WMA Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects ( Clinical studies that do not meet the Helsinki Declaration will not be considered for publication. For human, identifiable information, such as patients’ names, initials, hospital numbers, dates of birth, or other protected healthcare information should not be disclosed. For animal subjects, research should be performed based on the National or Institutional Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, and the ethical treatment of all experimental animals should be maintained.

    Statement of Informed Consent and Institutional Review Board Approval

    Copies of written informed consents should be kept for studies on human subjects. For clinical studies with human subjects, there should be a certificate, agreement, or approval by the institutional review board (IRB) of the author’s affiliated institution. If necessary, the editor or reviewers may request copies of these documents to resolve questions about IRB approval and study conduct.

    Clinical Trial Registration

    Any research that deals with a clinical trial should be registered in the primary national clinical trial registry site, such as the Korea Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS,, any other primary national registry site accredited by the World Health Organization (, or (, a service of the United States National Institutes of Health.

    Conflict of Interest Statement

    All participants in the publication and peer review process— not only authors but also peer reviewers, editors, and editorial board members of journals—must consider their conflicts of interest when fulfilling their roles in the process of article review and publication and must disclose all relationships that could be viewed as potential conflicts of interest.
    Conflict of interest exists when professional judgment concerning a primary interest (such as patients’ welfare or the validity of research) may be influenced by a secondary interest (such as financial gain). Conflict of interest also exists when an author (or the author’s institution), reviewer, or editor has financial or personal relationships that inappropriately influence his/her actions (such relationships are also known as dual commitments, competing interests, or competing loyalties).
    All authors should disclose their conflicts of interest, i.e., (1) financial relationships (such as employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony), (2) personal relationship, (3) academic competition, and (4) intellectual passion. These conflicts of interest must be included as a footnote on the title page or in the acknowledgement section. Each author should certify the Instructions for Authors Recently revised on February 15th, 2019 disclosure of any conflict of interest with his/her signature. Peer reviewers must disclose to editors any conflicts of interest that could bias their opinions of the manuscript, and should recuse themselves from reviewing specific manuscripts if the potential for bias exists. Editors who make final decisions about manuscripts should recuse themselves from editorial decisions if they have conflicts of interest or relationships that pose potential conflicts related to articles under consideration. Other editorial staff members who participate in editorial decisions must provide editors with a current description of their financial interests or other conflicts (as they might relate to editorial judgments) and recuse themselves from any decisions in which a conflict of interest exists. Further guidance is available from COPE ( Ethical_Editing.pdf) and WAME (
    If undisclosed conflict of interest is suspected in a submitted manuscript or published article, a committee composed of Editorial Board members will be held and discussed, and JMIS will follow the process of the applicable COPE flowchart (


    Authorship confers credit and has important academic, social, and financial implications. Authorship also implies responsibility and accountability for published work. According to the ICMJE recommendation, authorship is based on the following 4 criteria: 1) Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND 2) Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND 3) Final approval of the version to be published; AND 4) Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. Authors should meet all four criteria.
    Contributors who meet fewer than all 4 of the above criteria for authorship should not be listed as authors, but they should be acknowledged. Examples of activities that alone (without other contributions) do not qualify a contributor for authorship are acquisition of funding; general supervision of a research group or general administrative support; and writing assistance, technical editing, language editing, and proofreading.
    After the initial submission of a manuscript, any change in authorship (adding author(s), deleting author(s), or rearranging the order of authors) is not generally accepted, but must be explained by a letter to the editor from the authors concerned if it is absolutely necessary. This letter must be signed by all authors of the paper. JMIS does not correct authorship after acceptance for publication unless a mistake has been made by the editorial staff.

    Duplicate Publication

    Authors should not submit the same manuscript, in the same or different languages, simultaneously to more than one journal. Manuscripts are only accepted for publication in journals if they have not been published elsewhere. Manuscripts published in this journal should not be submitted for publication elsewhere. If the author(s) wishes to obtain a duplicate or secondary publication for various other reasons, such as for readers of a different language, he/she should obtain approval from the editors-in-chief of both the first and second journal. If duplicate publication related to the papers of this journal is detected, the authors and their institutes will be informed, and there will also be penalties for the authors.

    Acceptable Secondary Publication

    Secondary publication of material published in other journals or online may be justifiable and beneficial, especially when intended to disseminate important information to the widest possible audience (e.g., guidelines produced by government agencies and professional organizations in the same or a different language). Secondary publication may also be justifiable in conditions provided by ICMJE Recommendations (



    Authors must declare that the submitted work is their own and that copyright has not been breached in seeking its publication. Copyright in all published material is owned by the Korean Society of Endoscopic & Laparoscopic Surgeons. Copyright Transfer Form must be signed by every author and be submitted with other manuscripts during the first online submission process. The corresponding author is responsible for submitting the Copyright Transfer Form during the submission process. In addition, it is the authors’ responsibility to obtain written permission to reproduce (in all media, including electronic) any material that has appeared previously in another publication. Authors should provide copies of permission letters for any material reproduced from copyrighted publications. Submitted material will not be returned to the author unless specifically requested.

    Open Access Policy

    JMIS is an open access journal. The person using JMIS online may use, reproduce, disseminate, or display the open access version of content from this journal for noncommercial purposes. Articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons License (, which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium if the original work is properly cited. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative definition of open access.
    For any commercial use of material from the open access version of the journal, permission must be obtained from the Korean Society of Endoscopic & Laparoscopic Surgeons (email: Requests for reprints after the journal is published should be faxed or emailed to the Editorial Office. Copy reprints will be charged after committee approval and color prints will need an additional charge.


    Screening Before Review

    If the manuscript does not fit the aims and scope of JMIS or does not adhere to the Instructions for Authors, it may be returned to the author immediately after submission without review. For double-blind peer review, the title page and manuscript should be provided as separate files. The title page will remain separate from the manuscript throughout the peer review process and will not be sent to the reviewers. The manuscript should be anonymized. Please make sure that any identifying information, such as authors' names or affiliations, is removed from your manuscript before submission.

    Peer Review Process

    After screening, a manuscript is sent to the most two relevant reviewers of the field. In addition, if deemed necessary, a review of statistics may be requested. JMIS recommends peer reviewers to follow JMIS Review Regulations or the COPE Ethical Guidelines ( Authors' names and affiliations are removed during peer review. The acceptance criteria for all papers are based on the quality and originality of the research and its clinical and scientific significance. Acceptance of the manuscript is decided based on the critiques and recommended decision of the reviewers. An initial decision will normally be made within 4 weeks of receipt of a manuscript, and reviewers’ comments are sent to the first or corresponding authors by e-mail. Revised manuscripts must be submitted online by the first or corresponding author who must indicate the alterations that have been made in response to the reviewers’ comments item by item. Failure to resubmit the revised manuscript within 8 weeks of the editorial decision is regarded as a withdrawal. A final decision on acceptance for publication or rejection for publication is forwarded to the first or corresponding author from the Editorial Office.


    JMIS focuses on clinical and experimental original studies, case reports, editorial, letter to the editor, invited reviews, technical notes, and video/multimedia articles in the field of minimally invasive surgery. Any physicians or researchers throughout the world can submit a manuscript if the scope of the manuscript is appropriate. Manuscripts should be submitted in English. Medical terminology should be written based on the most recent edition of Dorland’s Illustrated Medical Dictionary or the most recent edition of English-Korean or Korean-English Medical Terminology, published by the Korean Medical Association (


    All manuscripts should be submitted online via the journal’s website ( or the KSELS homepage ( by the first or corresponding author. Once you have logged into your account, on-line system will lead you through the submission process in a step-by-step orderly process. Submission instructions are available at the website.


    After entering all the checklist, you will be prompted for uploading files. The main document with manuscript text and tables should be prepared with an MS-word program.

    1. 1. The manuscript for a major paper should be organized in the following order: title page, abstract, introduction, materials or methods, results, discussion, acknowledgements, references, tables, figure legends, and figures.
    2. 2. The manuscript should be double spaced on 21.6 × 27.9 cm (letter size) or 21.0 × 29.7 cm (A4) paper with 3.0 cm margins at the top, bottom, and left margin.
    3. 3. All manuscript pages are to be numbered consecutively, beginning with the abstract as page 1. Neither the author’s names nor their affiliations should appear on the manuscript pages.
    4. 4. Use only standard abbreviations with reference to the list of abbreviations and acronyms. The use of acronyms and abbreviations should be kept to a minimum. Avoid abbreviations in the title of the manuscript. The spelled-out abbreviation followed by the abbreviation in parenthesis should be used on the first mention unless the abbreviation is a standard.
    5. 5. The names and locations (city, state and country only) of manufacturers of equipment and non-generic drugs should be given.
    6. 6. When quoting from other sources, give a reference number after the author’s name or at the end of the quotation.
    7. 7. Reporting guidelines for specific study designs: For the specific study design, such as randomized control studies, studies of diagnostic accuracy, meta-analyses, observational studies and non-randomized studies, it is recommended that the authors follow the reporting guidelines listed in the following table [].

    8. Initiative Type of study Source
      CONSORT Randomized controlled trials http
      QUOROM Systematic reviews and meta-analyses
      MOOSE Meta-analyses of observational studies in epidemiology
      STARD Studies of diagnostic accuracy
      STOBE Observational studies in epidemiology

    9. 8. The title page and manuscript should be provided as separate files and the manuscript should be anonymized for double-blind peer review. Please make sure that any identifying information, such as authors' names or affiliations, is removed from your manuscript before submission. Authors should use the third person to refer to an article which the authors have previously published. For example, write “Lee and Park (2015) have demonstrated” rather than “we/the authors have previously demonstrated (Lee and Park, 2015)”. Authors should make sure that figures and tables do not contain any reference to author affiliations. If the manuscript includes any identifying information, it may be returned to the author immediately after submission without review.


    Original articles are reports of clinical or experimental investigations. Although there is no limitation on the length of these manuscripts, the Editorial Board may abridge excessive illustrations and large tables. The manuscript for an original article should be organized in the following sequence: 1) title page, 2) abstract (including keywords), 3) main text (introduction, methods, results, discussion, acknowledgments, references), 4) tables & figure legends, and 5) figures. The cover letter should inform the editor that the submitted material or any portions thereof have not been published previously or are not under consideration for publication elsewhere. It should state any potential conflict of interest that could influence the authors’ interpretation of the data, such as financial support from or connections to pharmaceutical companies, political pressure from interest groups, or academically related issues.

    1. a) Title page: A title page includes the article title (full and running), author information, any disclaimers, sources of support, and word count. The title page should include the following items: (1) the title of the article, (2) running title, (3) the full name and Open Researcher and Contributor Identification (ORCID) number of each author, (4) affiliation: When other authors with a different address are included, first write the name of the organization where the primary research was conducted and the names of the other organizations along with the authors’ names, listed in numerical order, with the numbering system beginning at the second organization. (6) The corresponding author’s name, ORCID number, address, telephone, fax number and e-mail address, and (7) conflict of interest and the source of any research funding, if necessary. JMIS encourages the listing of authors’ ORCID number according to ICMJE recommendation. The corresponding author must provide the ORCID ID mandatory. The ORCID registry is available free of charge to individuals, who may obtain an ORCID identifier, manage their record of activities, and search for others in the ORCID Registry. To register for an ID, please visit the ORCID website [].
    2. b) Abstract: The abstract should be concise, less than 250 words, and describe concisely, in a paragraph, purpose, methods, results, and derived conclusion of the study in a structured format. In case report, it should be fewer than 150 words. Up to 5 keywords should be listed at the bottom of abstract to be used as index terms. We strongly recommendthe keywords within Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) in Medline [].
    3. c) Main text: The main text of the paper may have separate Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion sections (these sections may not be applicable to all article types, e.g. case report, reviews, etc.). A short Acknowledgements paragraph may also be included.
      1. (1) Introduction: Provide a context or background for the study (that is, the nature of the problem and its significance). State the specific purpose or research objective of, or hypothesis tested by, the study or observation. Cite only directly pertinent references, and do not include data or conclusions from the work being reported.
      2. (2) Methods: Describe clearly how and why a study was done in a particular way and include the research plan, the materials (or subjects), and the methods used, in that order. Explain in detail how the disease was confirmed and how subjectivity in observations was controlled. When experimental methodology is the main issue of the paper, describe the process in detail so as to recreate the experiment as closely as possible. When quoting specific materials, equipment, or proprietary drugs, the name and address of the manufacturer must be given in parentheses. Generic names should be used instead of commercial names. Include information on the institutional review board/ ethics committee approval or waiver and informed consent. Describe statistical methods in detail and, when possible, present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals). Specify the statistical software package(s) and versions used.
        Authors should ensure correct use of the terms sex (when reporting biological factors) and gender (identity, psychosocial or cultural factors), and, unless inappropriate, report the sex and/or gender of study participants, the sex of animals or cells, and describe the methods used to determine sex and gender. If the study was done involving an exclusive population, for example in only one sex, authors should justify why, except in obvious cases (e.g., prostate cancer). Authors should define how they determined race or ethnicity and justify their relevance.
      3. (3) Results: The results should be presented in logical sequence in the text, tables and figures, giving the main or most important findings first. Repetitive presentation of the same data in different forms should be avoided: Do not repeat all the data in the tables or figures in the text; emphasize or summarize only the most important observations. The results should not include material appropriate to the discussion.
      4. (4) Discussion: Observations pertaining to the results of research and other related materials should be interpreted for your readers. Emphasize new and important observations; do not merely repeat the contents of the results. Explain the meaning of the observed opinion along with its limits, and within the limits of the research results connect the conclusion to the purpose of the research. In a concluding paragraph, summarize the result and its meaning.
      5. (5) Acknowledgments: Each author’s role should be stated here based on authorship criteria. All persons who have made substantial contributions, but who have not met the criteria for authorship, are acknowledged here. All sources of funding applicable to the study should be stated here explicitly.
      6. (6) References: [JMIS Endnote Style Download,] In the text, references should be cited sequentially in the Vancouver numbering style, as a superscripted number after any punctuation mark. Two references are cited separated by a comma, with no space. Three or more consecutive references are given as a range.

      7. <Examples of JMIS references style>
      8.     - ... received surgical treatment for gastric cancer in South Korea.3
        - According to gastric cancer treatment guidelines,5 PPG can be considered...
        - Suh et al.9 reported a 3-year recurrence-free survival rate of 98.2%.
        - Many studies report ... nutrition status, body weight, and anemia.18,19
        - ... in terms of anastomosis-related late complications.18,28-30
        In the references section, the references should be numbered and listed in order of appearance in the text. List all authors if there are less than or equal to six authors. When there are more than six authors, the first three could be given, followed by 'et al'.
        If an article has been published online, but has not yet been given an issue or pages, the digital object identifier (DOI) should be supplied. Other types of references not described below should follow The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers []. The total number of references is limited to thirty for original articles, and ten for case reports.

      9. <Examples of JMIS references style>
      10. - Journal articles
        1) Park SJ, Lee KY, Lee SH. Laparoscopic Surgery for Colorectal Cancer in Korea: Nationwide Data from 2008~2013. J Minim Invasive Surg 2015;18(2):39-43.
        2) Jung KW, Won YJ, Kong HJ, Oh CM, Lee DH, Lee JS. Cancer statistics in Korea: incidence, mortality, survival, and prevalence in 2011. Cancer Res Treat 2014;46:109-123.
        3) Kolfschoten NE, van Leersum NJ, Gooiker GA, et al. Successful and safe introduction of laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery in Dutch hospitals. Ann Surg 2013;257:916-921.
        4) National Cancer Center, Ministry of Health and Welfare. Cancer Facts & Figures 2014 in the Republic of Korea. Goyang-si: National Cancer Center; 2014.
      11. - Online publication
        1) Suzuki S, Kajiyama H, Shibata K, Ino K, Nawa A, Sakakibara K, et al. Is there any association between retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy and survival benefit in ovarian clear cell carcinoma patients? Ann Oncol 2008 Mar 19 [Epub]. DOI:10.1093/annonc/mdn059.
      12. - Online sources
        1) Statistics Korea. Supply and demand status of medical care assistance in Korea [Internet]. Daejeon: Statistics Korea; c2008 [cited on May 11, 2015]. Available from:
        2) American Cancer Society. Cancer reference information [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): American Cancer Society; c2009 [cited 2010 Aug 10]. Available from:
      13. - Entire book
        1) Sabiston DC. Davis-Christopher's textbook of surgery. 15th ed. Phladelphia: WB Saunders; 1997.
      14. - Part of a book
        1) Dozois RR. Disorders of the anal canal. In: Sabiston DC, Lyerly HK, editors. Textbook of surgery: The biological basis of modern surgical practice. 15th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1997. p. 1032-44.
      15. - Dissertation
        1) Hong GD. The relationship between low serum cholesterol level and cancer mortality [dissertation]. Seoul (KR): Seoul National Univ.; 2009.
      16. - Conference paper
        1) Rice AS, Brooks JW. Canabinoids and pain. In: Dostorovsky JO, Carr DB, editors. Proceedings of the 10th World Congress on Pain; 2002 Aug 17-22; San Diego, CA. Seattle (WA): IASP Press; 2003. p. 437-46.
        2) Health and Social Care Information Centre. National Bowel Cancer Audit Progress Report Tripartite Colorectal Meeting. Boar Lane: Health and Social Care Information Centre; 2014.
      17. (7) Tables
        - Tables are to be numbered in the order in which they are cited in the text.
        - A table title should concisely describe the content of the table so that a reader can understand the table without referring to the text.
        - Each table must be simple and typed on a separate page with its heading above it.
        - Explanatory matter is placed in footnotes below the tabular matter and not included in the heading. All non-standard abbreviations are explained in the footnotes.
        - Footnotes should be indicated by *, , , §, , , **
        - Statistical measures such as SD or SEM should be identified.
        - Vertical rules and horizontal rules between entries should be omitted.
      18. (8) Figures
        - Figures should be submitted as separate files during submission process.
        - Preferred formats are TIFF for photographic, raster images, and EPS or line-arts. Following formats may be suitable in selected images; JPEG/PNG/BMP (suitable for images if the original file format is JPEG/PNG/BMP), PPTX (only for diagrams made in PowerPoint file). Contact the editorial office for other format.
        - Figure should have minimum width of 107 mm, and a minimum resolution of 300 dpi for color figures, 500 dpi for black and white figures, and 1,000 dpi for line art figures.
        - Written permission should be obtained for the use of all previously published illustrations (and copies of permission letters should be included).
        - In the case of multiple prints bearing the same number, use English letters after the numerals to indicate the correct order. (ex) Fig. 1A --, Fig. 1B
        - Figures should be numbered, using Arabic numerals, in the order in which they are cited.
        - A figure legend should be a one-sentence description in English rather than a phrase.
        - Please refer to the Guidelines for Digital Art (
        - If any tables or figures are taken or modified from other papers, authors should obtain permission through the Copyright Clearance Center ( or from the individual publisher, except where the materials concerned have been published in an open access journal under the Creative Commons license. For tables or figures from an open access journal, simply verify the source of the journal precisely in the accompanying footnote. Please note the distinction between a free-access journal and an open access journal: it is necessary to obtain permission from the publisher of a free-access journal for using tables or figures published therein. Examples are shown below: Reprinted (Modified) from Tanaka et al. [48], with permission of Elsevier. OR Reprinted (Modified) from Weiss et al. [2],


    Case reports will be published only in exceptional circumstances, when they illustrate a rare occurrence of clinical importance. Case reports should address issues of importance to medical researchers and preferably should have helpful illustrations. The manuscript for a case report should be organized in the following sequence: title page, abstract and keywords, introduction, case report, discussion, acknowledgments, references, tables, figure legends, and figures. The abstract should be unstructured and its length should not exceed 150 words. There should be no more than five figures, including tables, and no more than 10 references.

    3) REVIEWS

    Reviews are invited by the editor and should be comprehensive analyses of specific topics. They are organized as follows: title page, abstract and keywords, introduction, body text, conclusion, acknowledgments, references, tables, figure legends, and figures. There should be an unstructured or structured abstract equal to or less than 250 words. The length of the text excluding references, tables, and figures should not exceed 7,500 words.


    Editorials are invited by the editor and should be commentaries on articles published recently in the Journal. Editorial topics could include active areas of research, fresh insights, and debates in all fields of minimally invasive surgery. The manuscript for editorials should be prepared as follows: title page, abstract and keywords, body text, acknowledgments, references, tables, figure legends, and figures. The abstract should be unstructured and its length should not exceed 150 words. There should be no more than five figures, including tables, and no more than 10 references.


    Video clips can be submitted for placement on the Journal website. A video file submitted for consideration for publication should be in complete and final format and at as high a resolution as possible. Any editing of the video will be the responsibility of the author. A manuscript should be submitted with the video so that the submission is indexed in electronic library or medical database. The manuscript should be prepared according to the requirements of case report (title page, abstract and keywords, introduction, method or procedure, discussion, acknowledgments, references), and references as well as disclosures. Up to 5 video clips per manuscript submission can be submitted. We accept all kind of video files not exceed 500MB, less than 5 minutes duration, but recommend Windows Media Player (*.WMV), MPEG (*.MPG, *.MPEG, *.MP4), Audio Video Interleave (*.AVI), and Quicktime (*.MOV). files. The video file must be playable on a Windows-based computer. An audio narration in English must accompany the video. Annotation of anatomic structures is encouraged but music sound tracks nor fancy video transitions are not encouraged. If the article is accepted for publication, the video will be digitized and permanently archived on the JMIS website.


    Accepted manuscripts will be published with the implicit understanding that the authors will pay the costs of publication including page charges. Basic page charge is 50,000 KRW for Korean authors and 50 USD for non- Korean authors for all published manuscripts. Illustrations, photographs, electron micrographs, color plates and other special illustrations will be reproduced at the author’s expense at cost prices.

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    Bank Name: Woork Bank
    Account Name: The Korean Society of Endoscopic and Laparoscopic Surgeons
    Account No: 1005-802-042029

    Contact Us
    Editor-in-Chief: Suk-Hwan Lee
    Kyung Hee University Hostpital at Gangdong, 892, Dongnamro, Gangdong-gu, Seoul 05278, Korea
    Tel: +82-2-440-6134, Fax: +82-2-440-6295,

    Editorial Office
    The Korean Society of Endoscopic and Laparoscopic Surgeons
    Seoul National University Bundang Hospital 2dong 7716, 82, Gumi-ro 173 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam 13620, Korea
    Tel: +82-31-712-5009, Fax: +82-31-717-5009,


Current Issue

30 March 2019 Volume 22,
Number 1, pp. 1~45