The Journal of Minimally Invasive Surgery :eISSN 2234-5248   pISSN 2234-778X

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Fig. 1. Examples of lymph node navigation using various imaging systems. Yellow arrowhead: lymph node. Yellow arrow: lymphatic channel. White arrow: injection site. After an injection of 2.5 mg/ml of indocyanine green, only one green lymphatic channel is observed by white light view (A), however, multiple lymphatic channels as well as a lymph node are visualized by AIM system ENVTM mode (Stryker, San Jose, CA, USA) (B). After injection of 0.1 mg/ml of indocyanine, lymphatic channels and lymph nodes are visualized in the D-lightTM system (Karl-Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany) (C, D), Pinpoint fluorescence mode (E) and color segmented fluorescence mode (F) in PinpointTM system (Novadaq, Canada), and IRTM system (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) (G, H).
Journal of Minimally Invasive Surgery 2018;21:95~105
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