The Journal of Minimally Invasive Surgery :eISSN 2234-5248   pISSN 2234-778X

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Fig. 1. German surgeon Erich M Mühe performed the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a human using a modified rectoscope and pistol grip instruments with an optic and CO2 insufflation. a = side-view optics; b = instrumentation channel with valves; c = light conductor; d = gas channel.
Journal of Minimally Invasive Surgery 2019;22:51~54 https://doi.org/10.7602/jmis.2019.22.2.51
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